Africa: Transitioning to a Sustainable Economy





Africa: Transitioning to a Green Economy: From Economic Growth to Sustainable Development

ISBN 9781907543364

Edited by Chidi Magnus Onuoha (Nigeria), Michelle Gale and Miriam Kennet


Beyond Economic Growth to Sustainable Development. Building a more secure future, by embracing a more sustainable form of development that will improve lives today and build a better world for our children and grandchildren.” Dr Chidi Magnus Onuoha (Nigeria)

About the Authors

Dr Magnus Chidi Onahua

The Editors

Dr Chidi Magnus Onouha (Nigeria) is a Development Economist, and Public Policy Analyst. Qualified from University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria and he is a member of the Green Economics Institute, UK. He taught Economics at the Institute for Continuing Education Programme, Imo State University, Nigeria before he left for National Assembly, Abuja Nigeria where he served as a Senior Legislative Aide to the House Committee on Petroleum (Upstream). He also served as a National Expert in the United Nations Industrial Organization (UNIDO) / Institute for African Studies, Oxford University, UK collaborative effort on the Survey of the manufacturing sector of the Nigerian Economy in 2004. He is the author of Fiscal Policy and Poverty Alleviation: The Nigerian Experience. He is presently a Research Fellow, African Institute for Applied Economics, Enugu, Nigeria.

Michelle S. Gale de Oliveira is a director of the Green Economics Institute, UK.She is a member of the Law School of the University of London School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS), holding an MA in Human Rights Law with a focus on Islamic Law, Peace-Building, and Developing Countries, specifically South Sudan. Founder of the Gender Progress Consortium, she holds degrees in Political Science and International Relations from Richmond, the American International University in London (RAIUL). She is a deputy editor of the International Journal of Green Economics. Her writing has been featured in Europe’s World, one of the foremost European policy magazines. She lectures and speaks on Human Rights, Environmental and Social Justice, Gender Equity, International Development and Green Economics internationally. She also ran a conference on women’s unequal pay and poverty in Reading, UK, lectured at the Oxford University Club on the human rights of land reform, is a regular speaker at international conferences and has appeared in the media in Africa, Europe, and Latin America. In 2010/2011, she was a delegate to the UNFCCC’s COP15/16 in Copenhagen and Cancun, and in 2012 led a delegation to the United Nations’ RIO+20, Sustainable Development Conference where she ran our three side events on green economics.

Miriam Kennet is a specialist in Green Economics and is married to a South African whose family have been involved in food and charity programmes in the Cape Schools and townships. She has been active in creating an African network of Green Economists. She is the Co-Founder and is CEO of the Green Economics Institute She also founded and edits the first Green Economics academic journal in the world, the International Journal of Green Economics, and she has been credited with creating the academic discipline of Green Economics. Green Economics has been recently described by the Bank of England as one of the most vibrant and healthy areas of economics at the moment. She is a member of Mansfield College and the Environmental Change Institute, both at University of Oxford. The BBC has made a special programme about her life and work. She runs regular conferences at Oxford University about Green Economics. Publishing regularly and having over 100 articles, papers and books. She has been featured in the Harvard Economics Review and Wall Street Journal as a leader. Recently she was named one of 100 most powerful unseen global women by the Charity One World. She is a popular after dinner speaker, and has advised in the Uk Parliament and the Bank of England and in Brussels. She has taught, lectured and spoken at Universities and events all over Europe, from Alicante to Oxford and Bolzano, and to government officials from Montenegro and Kosovo to The UK Cabinet Office, Transport Department, National Government School and Treasury and spoken in Parliaments from Scotland to Austria and The French Senat and Estonia. She is also very active in spreading Green Economics in Asia, China, and all round Africa where people find it may be one of the beacons of hope at the moment in an age of Austerity and Cuts as it provides a completely new way of looking at the world. She is on the Assembly of the Green European Foundation. She has a delegation to the UNFCC COP Kyoto Climate Change Conferences and headed up a delegation to RIO + 20 Earth Summit: Greening the Economy in RIO Brazil where she is very active. She regularly speaks on TV and radio.

Contributing Authors

Sumaya Abdi an Economist at the University of Westminster in London. She is part of the Somali diaspora, was born in the Netherlands and grew up in the UK. She is a Somalilander and is interested in the economic, political and ethical problems of her country.

Dr. Stephen Bakare Adewale is an economist at the Department of Economics, Adekunle Ajasin University, in Ondo Province Nigeria and specialises in labour economics and also has published in the Business and Management Review on local content in industry for capacity utilisation and on Research Methodology for Economics and Behavioural Science. He is a regular contributor to the Green Economics Institute’s conferences and books and is currently editing our book, The Greening of Nigeria.

Sofia Amaral is a young Portugese economist, with a Masters in Economics from NOVA School of Business and Economics, Portugal in Economics and International Management (CEMS-MIM). Her field of interests include green economics and sustainable management. She has an interest in global affairs and the potential reform of economics especially as she sees Green Economics as a quick win and a logical and sensible way to solve economics problems. The BBC recently praised her work. She has edited several of the papers in this volume.

Dr Susan Canney has worked on a variety of nature conservation projects in Africa, Asia and Europe (living for several years in Niger and Tanzania) and as a research officer for Sir Crispin Tickell at the Green College Centre for Environmental Policy & Understanding. With MAs in Natural Sciences, Landscape Design, and Environmental Policy, and a Doctorate for understanding the drivers behind changing human land use and its impact on a protected area in Tanzania, her current research activities are centred on the use of spatial techniques for understanding human impact on ecosystems and wildlife. This understanding is used to find sustainable solutions in order to manage human-wildlife conflict; plan and implement conservation strategy; and develop participatory approaches to conservation management. Current projects include assuring a future for a unique population of elephants in the sub-Sahara of Mali as Project Leader of the WILD Foundation’s Mali Elephant Project. Based in Oxford University’s Zoology Department, she teaches global ecology and is interested in the shift in scientific perspective presented by systemic approaches such as Lovelock’s Gaia Theory; and in exploring the implications of this shift for society, its institutions, as well as for the individual’s experience of Nature. She is the Secretary and a Co-founder of the Earth System Science Special Interest Group of the Geological Society of London, and of the Gaia Network. She teaches on the issues surrounding the notion of valuing nature for the Green Economics Institute and is a member of their Biodiversity Group.

Dr Nane Grimot is a researcher at London South Bank University, department of Development Studies. A specialist in Nigeria, Dr Grimot’s research interests lie in the economics of governance and the corruption history of economics. He specialises in the Political Economy of Development, Energy Management and Business Development of SMEs.

Volker Heinemann is an economist who studied at the Universities of Goettingen, Kiel and Nottingham. He is a specialist in international and developing economics, monetary economics and macroeconomic theory and policy. He is author of the book “Die Oekonomie der Zukunft,” “The Economy of the Future,” a book outlining a green structure for a contemporary economy that accepts the pressing changes that are needed to outdated current economic thinking. He is co-founder and Director and CFO of the Green Economics Institute, a member of the Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales, trained at PWC and other major Institutions and is a Deputy Editor of the International Journal of Green Economics. He is a popular radio and TV speaker in Europe and a former Die Gruenen Councillor.

Mzoxolo Eliot Mbiko was a Ford Foundation Scholar, and studied with the Green Economics Institute and works for the South African Government. An economist from South Africa, Eliot is interested in Development Economics. Mahelet Alemayehu Mekonnen is an Ethiopian economist qualified in economics and political science from Richmond The American University in London. She heads up our Africa team. She is economics advisor for the management team. She is a firm believer in education and believes in tackling one of the most important problems we are facing in the global world, particularly the issue of climate change and inequality towards women. Her work relates to examining large projects and questions of sustainability – and development.

Igor A. Makarov is a Lecturer of Environmental Economics and Politics at the National Research University – Higher School of Economics (Moscow, Russia) and a researcher at the Center for Comprehensive European and International Studies at the same university. The areas of his professional interest include international climate change economics and policy, international economics of water and food scarcity. He is the author of various articles on the economic aspects of climate change, food and water scarcity and their impacts on Russian economy in leading Russian academic journals.

Pauline Mouret is researching at AgroParisTech, a famous French engineering Grande Ecole School, specialising in environmental sciences and agronomy. She is interested in environmental and agricultural issues. She has worked on agricultural development in Cameroon. She undertook a two-month project to study the efficiency of green roofs to protect urban biodiversity in the ecology centre at Orsay South Paris University and studied with the Green Economics Institute and contributed some excellent papers and ideas.

Isayvani Naicker is researching Geography at the University of Cambridge, looking at the interaction of science and policy in society, focused on a case study of biodiversity conservation in South Africa. Her previous degrees include a Master of Science (Geology) from the University of Cape Town in South Africa and Master of Science (Philosophy of Social Science) from the London School of Economics and Political Science in he UK. She works in the environmental and sustainable development fields in Africa.

Adrian Nel is originally from Bulawayo, Zimbabwe, and pursued his undergraduate and honours degrees in Economics and Politics at Rhodes University in South Africa, where he worked at the Institute of Social and Economic Research (ISER) on Local Economic Development in the Eastern Cape. Subsequently he studied at the Green Economics Institute in 2009 and through his exposure to Green Development issues there, has continued in this field. He has conducted related research in Mozambique, Thailand and Laos, and from 2011 is researching at the University of Otago in New Zealand to investigate the emergence of market environmentalism and the impact of carbon forestry offset projects in East Africa.

Ngefor Silvian has a Masters in Social and Cultural Anthropology, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium and is a researcher in gender and forest management at the Faculty of Biosciences, University of Ghent, Belgium.

Kristof and Stacia Nordin are the co-founders of Never Ending Food, a community-based endeavor to improve the health of the planet and all of its living organisms through the use of natural, restorative, and sustainable design principles. They have been living and working in Malawi, Africa since 1997 in the areas of HIV, food security, nutrition, and community education. Stacia is a Registered Dietitian and Kristof is a Writer with a background in Social Work and Community Organizing. They both hold Diplomas in Permaculture Design. Their 9 year old daughter, Khalidwe, was born in Malawi and is already an aspiring Permaculturalist.

Emmanuel Ojo is Lecturer at the University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa. He teaches economics at the Faculty of Humanities, Wits School of Education. His current research interests include economics education, higher education policy, and internationalisation of higher education. He recently published a book titled, “Internationalisation of Higher Education in South Africa”. He researches with Professor Jane Skinner.

Dr Nicholas Ozor, B. Agric (Nig., First Class Honours); MSc (Nig., Distinction) Ph.D. (Reading & Nig.), is a Senior Research Officer at the African Technology Policy Studies Network Nairobi, Kenya where he provides leadership in research, communication and outreach work. He was formerly a Senior lecturer in the Department of Agricultural Extension, University of Nigeria. Dr Ozor is a Commonwealth Scholar and holds the Best PhD Thesis Award in Agriculture in Nigeria in 2006. He is a Teaching Fellow and Mentor on the African Climate Change Fellowship Programme. Dr Ozor is leading many international research projects on innovation studies, climate change, development issues, policy analysis, technology management, transfer and advocacy. He is a member of many professional organizations and has published over 50 articles in high ranking international journals and as book chapters.

Freddy Tshibundu Shamwana qualified in Biology at ISP/ Lubumbashi DR Congo, and in Environmental Strategy at Surrey University, UK. He is an associate member of the Institute of Environmental Management and Assessment (IEMA). His current research is sustainability management of the natural resources in the DR Congo. He previously worked in the teaching sector and tourism industry in Southern Africa.

Riad Sultan is a Lecturer in Economics at the University of Mauritius. He has wide experiences in socio-economic issues and policy-making, having served as the Research Executive of the research department of the National Economic and Social Council of Mauritius. He was involved with the African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM) project in Mauritius for the African Union. He has conducted research on areas such as green jobs assessment, green industry, resource efficiency, economics of bio-ethanol, energy and ecosystem valuation in Mauritius. His research interests include climate change economics, fisheries, sustainable transport solutions, energy modelling, and economics of law. He has served as Consultant and Investigator for various organisations including the Mauritius Research Council, UNDP, ILO, COI, and the ICTSD.

Achille Tuete is Cameroonian and an “Engineer in Water, Forest and Wildlife”. a diploma he obtained from the Faculty of Agronomy and Agricultural Sciences in the University of Dschang in Cameroon. He has carried out several studies in the domain of forest certification, social forest and sustainable management of natural resources, especially community forestry. He currently researches Environmental Management in the Faculty of Agronomy and Agricultural Sciences. He worked at the non governmental organization ‘Alternative Durable pour le Developpement” in Centre Cameroon as a technician engineer and is lecturer and academic supervisor specialising in offering farmers technical support and agricultural issues in Cameroon. He is currently creating his own NGO in Western Cameroon, Africa, Nature and Development (AND) to support rural populations in the area where he was born.

Amana Winchester edited several chapters and was a local Parish Councilor. She has a strong interest in and is very active in sustainability. Qualified in Geography and Anthropology, she is an experienced teacher and lecturer in Geographical methods, pedagogy and education locally & at Oxford Brookes University.

Table of Contents:


Part 1: Transitioning to a Sustainable Economy

1.1 Climate Change and Sustainable Development in Nigeria: The Mitigating Greener Approach of Green Wall Sahara Nigeria Programme By Dr. Chidi Magnus Onuoha

1.2 Sustainable Development and Poverty Reduction in Nigeria By Dr. Chidi Magnus Onuoha

1.3 Green Economics model and Sustainable Development: Challenges and Opportunities for the Initiation of Realistic Policy Responses By Chidi Magnus Onuoha

Part 2: The Green Economics Institute’s Activities and Network in Africa

Part 3: Prosperity & Justice

3.1 Minimum Wage -Legislation Trends and Price level dynamics in Nigeria By Dr. Bakare Adewale Stephen (Nigeria)

3.2 The Macroeconomic Impacts of Oil Price Shocks: Empirical Evidence from Nigeria By Dr. Bakare Adewale Stephen (Nigeria)

Part 4: Towards the Development of a Green Economics Model (GEM) that Benefits Africa’s People and Natural Environment By Isayvani Naicker (South Africa and the UK) Part 5: Greening of the African Economy

5.1 Economic hope in Somaliland By Sumaya Abdi (Somaliland, The Netherlands and UK) 5.2 A Critical Analysis of Actors Involved in The Management of the Baka Indigenous Peoples’ Forest of Cameroon By Ngefor Silvian (Cameroon)

5.3 Opportunities and Challenges for Greening the Industrial Sector in Mauritius – an island state perspective By Riad Sultan (Mauritius)

Part 6: Learning to Re-Value Nature By Kristof Nordin and Stacia Nordin

Part 7: Denying Oil Exploitation and Corruption in the Nile Delta By Grimot Nane

Part 8: Biodiversity

8.1 Green economics working for elephants and people in the Sahel of Mali By Dr. Susan Canney

8.2 Biodiversity Conservation as a Key Component of Post-Conflict Reconciliation Aid and Reconstruction in Mali By Dr. Susan Canney

Part 9: Green Economics: Voices of Africa

9.1 Green Economics: A Global Movement for Change By Miriam Kennet

9.2 The South African Millennium Dilemma: Sustainable Development By Mzoxolo Elliot Mbiko 9.3 Exploring Teaching and Learning Strategies within South African Undergraduate Economics Education By Emmanuel Ojo

9.4 Green Development Paradigms: A Zimbabwean Example By Adrian Nel

9.5 Agricultural practices in the department Nyong and So’o, Central Cameroon: Issues and changes over the past last decades By Pauline Mouret

9.6 Community Forestry, an Innovative Concept Developed by Cameroonian Government to Tackle the Challenge of Rural Development By Achille Tuete

9.7 Mineral exploitation and Sustainable Development (case of Democratic Republic of Congo) By Freddy Tshibundu Shamwana

9.8 The Concept of Development: Is it illusive for the people of the Democratic Republic of Congo? By Freddy Tshibundu Shamwana

Part 10: Sustainable development

10.1 A thought Experiment: A cultural approach to achieving sustainability By Clive Lord

10.2 What is possible- precedents for a sustainable world By Clive Lord

10.3 Toward a new understanding of sustainable development By Igor Makarow

Part 11: Africa’s Agricultural Power and the Future of Africa

11.1 African Development: A New Light for The Next Millennia By Mahelet Alemayehu Mekonnen 11. 2 10 Key points about Green Economics Publications